Entertainment: Late 1700’s Early 1800’s

What was there to do in England, I mean among the rush and urge to be married as soon  possible.  There was leisure time and that time was spent in many ways, such as theater and music.  Middle to Upper class people would often visit London and catch a performance at large auditoriums during their stay.  You could view anything from live musical performances to feats of acrobatic stunts.

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Also popular in this time was visiting large estates and botanical gardens as seen in Pride and Prejudice when Elizabeth visited the Pemberley estate, as well as, their constant walks through gardens to calm their nerves and recollect their form.

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Many other events were popular for the classy folk, such as zoo’s, fairs, and even seaside visits to take in the world outside of home.  The circus was created in London, England by Phillip Astley in the 1780’s. Leisurely horseback riding was common in this time as well as stroll with friends.  It was not all dinner dates and marriage arrangements for these ladies and gentlemen.

 

 

 

Popular song of the time: This song, Für Elise,  was written by Ludwig Van Beethoven in 1810. In much speculation it was though he wrote this song in honor to a woman who denied his generous proposal.

Works cited

Jando, Dominique. “SHORT HISTORY OF THE CIRCUS.” – Circopedia. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2016.

King, Melissa. “What Kind of Entertainment Was There in England in the 1800s? | The Classroom | Synonym.” What Kind of Entertainment Was There in England in the 1800s? | The Classroom | Synonym. Demand Media, n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2016.

White, Matthew. “Georgian Entertainment: From Pleasure Gardens to Blood Sports.” The British Library. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2016.

Card Games In Pride and Prejudice

 

Card games are played throughout the novel for entertainment purposes, and to pass time. During this time period card games were associated with the higher class of society. Cards games were used for social gatherings and were not played within a single family,as these cards were used often to meet new people. One quote to show the significance of this manner from Mr.Hurst “do you prefer reading to cards”. This quote shows that Hurst was suprised by the fact that Elizabeth choose education and reading her book, over playing cards. Jane Austen’s adding cards games in this novel to show the division between social classes.

List of Card Games

Quadrille – a common gambling game restricted to four players at a time.
 
Loo – a “round game” that can be played with hands of three or five cards.
 
Cassino – players gamble on cards in hopes of scoring with a ten of diamongs or a two of spades.
 
Whist – similar to bridge, four players pair up in teams of two and gamble in a complex circuit of ‘trumps’.

Rules of the Card Games

Whist Rules

The classic game of whist is a plain-trick game without bidding for 4 players in fixed partnerships. Although the rules are extremely simple there is enormous scope for scientific play, and in its heyday a large amount of literature about how to play whist was written.

Players

There are four players in two fixed partnerships. Partners sit facing each other. The game is played clockwise.

Cards

A standard 52 card pack is used. The cards in each suit rank from highest to lowest: A K Q J 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2.

Deal

The cards are shuffled by the player to dealer’s left and cut by the player to dealer’s right. The dealer deals out all the cards one at a time so that each player has 13. The final card, which will belong to the dealer, is turned face up to indicate which suit is trumps. The turned trump remains face up on the table until it is dealer’s turn to play to the first trick.

It is traditional to use two packs of cards. During each deal, the dealer’s partner shuffles the other pack and places it to the right. The dealer for the next hand then simply needs to pick up the cards from the left and pass them across to the right to be cut. Provided all the players understand and operate it, this procedure saves time and helps to remember whose turn it is to deal, as the spare pack of cards is always to the left of the next dealer.

Play

The player to the dealer’s left leads to the first trick. Any card may be led. The other players, in clockwise order, each play a card to the trick. Players must follow suit by playing a card of the same suit as the card led if they can; a player with no card of the suit led may play any card. The trick is won by the highest trump in it – or if it contains no trump, by the highest card of the suit led. The winner of a trick leads to the next.

Scoring

When all 13 tricks have been played, the side which won more tricks scores 1 point for each trick they won in excess of 6.

The partnership which first reaches 5 points wins the game. This will normally take several deals.

Variations

Honours

Honours are the top four trumps – A K Q J. A partnership which between them held all four honours in their hands score an extra 4 points, which they claim at the end of the play. A side which held three of the four honours can claim 2 points for them. A team which at the start of the already has 4 points towards the 5 required for game cannot score honours on that deal.

If on the same deal one side scores for tricks and the other side scores honours, the tricks are scored first. That means that if both sides would have reached 5 or more points, it is the side scoring for tricks that wins the game.

Although scoring honours was part of the traditional game, nowadays many players do not count them. Scoring for honours introduces a larger luck element into the game.

Determination of Trumps

Instead of determining trumps by facing the last card in the deal, an alternative is to fix the trump suit in advance. In this case it is normal to go through the trump suits in a fixed sequence – for the first deal hearts are trumps, for the second deal diamonds, then spades, then clubs, then hearts again, and so on. This method is commonly used in tournaments, such as whist drives.

It is also possible to introduce no trumps into the sequence – so that every fifth hand is played without trumps.

Scoring

The number of points required for game varies. In America a target of 7 was customary. In Britain the game was 5 points up, but it was usual to play a rubber which was the best of three games – that is, the winners were the first side to win two games. There was also “Long Whist” in which game was 9 points.

When playing a tournament, it is inconvenient to have people at different tables play varying numbers of deals before moving. Therefore it is usual to play a fixed number of deals, rather than a game. Each player’s score is the tot

FIVE-CARD LOO

Players
From five to ten. Each should be equipped with an equal number of chips or counters.
Cards
52, ranking AKQJ1098765432 in each suit. The J, known as Pam, always belongs to the trump suit and beats every card in the pack, including the Ace of trumps.
Deal
Whoever cuts the lowest card (Ace low) deals first. The turn to deal and play passes always to the left. The dealer stakes five to the pool. Deal five cards to each player, in batches of three then two (or two then three), stack the rest face down, and turn the next for trump.
Object
To win at least one trick. A player who takes part and wins none is ‘looed’, and has to increase the pool.
Flush
A flush is five cards of the same suit, or four of a suit plus Pam. The best flush is four of a suit plus Pam, followed by a flush in trumps, then by the plain-suit flush containing the highest top card or cards. Whoever holds the best flush (if any), whether before or after exchanging cards, ‘looes the board’ immediately – that is, he is deemed to win all five tricks without play, and is appropriately paid by anyone who does not himself hold either Pam or a flush.
Bidding
Each in turn announces whether he will pass or play. To play implies an undertaking to win at least one trick. (Optional rule: No one may pass if clubs are trump.) Each active player may make any number of discards and is then dealt the same number of replacements from the top of the stock (excluding the turn-up).
Play
Eldest leads to the first trick. If the trump Ace is led (now or subsequently) its leader may say “Pam be civil,” whereupon the holder of the J may not play it unless holding no other trump. You must follow suit and head the trick if you can; if unable to follow you must trump and overtrump if you can; and only otherwise may you discard as you please. The trick is taken by the highest card of the suit led, or by the highest trump if any are played. The winner of each trick leads to the next, and must lead a trump if possible. If Pam is led you must play a trump if you can.
Pay-off
Each trick won earns one fifth of the pool. Anyone who fails to win a trick must pay an agreed stake to the pool.
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